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  • Introduction to gas measurement
    Gas measurement instrumentation covers a diverse range of applications. Personal monitors are used by people working in confined spaces where there is a risk of exposure to toxic gases, such as hydrogen sulphide or carbon monoxide. Fixed gas detection of flammable, combustible and toxic gases is necessary in many industrial environments, from...
    Guidance, 07 December 2012
  • Introduction to water / wastewater / effluent pumps
    Water, wastewater and effluent pumps are used in sewage treatment, municipal water treatment and heavy industrial applications to move liquids from one stage of a process to another. Wastewater and sewage pumps are designed to move abrasive and aggressive liquids where solids may be present. They are often designed to be submersible. Sludge and...
    Guidance, 10 December 2012
  • Introduction to reverse osmosis
    Reverse osmosis plant produces high-purity water for potable supplies or low-conductivity process water for industrial systems. A type of membrane filtration water treatment or pre-treatment technology, RO is used for the removal of dissolved solids and monovalent components such as chloride, and the separation of dissolved organic and inorganic...
    Guidance, 10 December 2012
  • Introduction to blowers
    Blowers are used to move gases, including air, dirty gases and process gases, with a moderate pressure increase. They can also produce negative pressures for vacuum systems. By contrast, with compressors the gas involved is compressed to a higher level of pressure. Industrial blowers are used in a diverse range of applications: Aerating wastewater...
    Guidance, 07 December 2012
  • Introduction to penstocks
    Penstocks are used for controlling the flow of large volumes of water in wastewater treatment, sewage, irrigation, hydraulic works and hydro-electric power applications. Penstocks are typically mounted in a wall, a channel or a weir. Rectangular and square penstocks are common, although circular penstocks are also available. They are usually...
    Guidance, 07 December 2012
  • Introduction to municipal / industrial screens
    Municipal and industrial screens are used as part of the processing and pre-treatment of a broad range of media. In wastewater, sewage and grey water screening, large objects, solids and coarse material have to be separated from the process stream. The retained solids are then removed for landfill, incineration or further treatment. In the...
    Guidance, 07 December 2012
  • Introduction to level measurement
    The best level measurement technology for a specific application will depend on: - what’s being measured (e.g. water or granular solid) - where it’s being measured (e.g. open watercourse or enclosed tank) - the process environment (e.g. temperature, pressure and turbulence) and, - the amount of information required (point or continuous system)...
    Guidance, 07 December 2012
  • Introduction to air flotation
    Air flotation covers a set of technologies designed to remove suspended matter, including fine solids, fats, oils and greases, from municipal wastewater, industrial effluent, water and oil-water mixtures. Liquids will often be pre-treated with chemicals, typically coagulants or flocculating polymers, to aid the process. In dissolved air flotation...
    Guidance, 06 December 2012
  • Introduction to conveyors
    Whether it’s minerals entering a production process, ingredients moving in a hygiene-critical environment or waste sludge being taken away for disposal, there’s an industrial conveying system capable of handling it. Belt conveyors provide a continuous surface for moving materials, components or goods. Belts can be made from rubber, plastic or...
    Guidance, 07 December 2012
  • Introduction to flow measurement
    The best flowmeter for a specific application will depend on: - what’s being measured (e.g. air or granular solids) - the nature of the fluid (e.g. viscosity, turbidity, aggressive chemicals) - where it’s being measured (e.g. open channel or enclosed pipe) - the process environment (e.g. temperature and pressure), and - what information is...
    Guidance, 07 December 2012
  • Introduction to clarifiers
    Clarifiers are tanks that encourage solids to separate out of wastewater and industrial effluents. Light materials float to the surface and are removed by a skimmer, whilst heavier solids settle on the bottom of the tank. In circular tanks a rotating scraper guides sludge to a removal point, and in rectangular tanks a collecting chain does the...
    Guidance, 07 December 2012
  • Introduction to centrifuges
    The centrifuge is a mechanical separation technology that uses accelerated rotation to separate out substances of different densities. These will be either a solid and a liquid or two immiscible liquids, such as water and oil. The most common type used in industry is the horizontal decanter centrifuge. These tend to be able to operate...
    Guidance, 07 December 2012
  • Introduction to gas scrubbers
    Gas scrubbing systems remove particulates and gaseous contaminants, including hydrogen chloride, hydrogen sulphide, ammonia and sulphur dioxide, from industrial flue gases. With wet scrubbers the flue gases are brought into contact with liquid scrubbing solutions that remove the contaminants. Various systems are available. In packed tower...
    Guidance, 07 December 2012
  • Introduction to fuel and oil storage tanks
    Static and mobile tanks are used for the storage and transportation of diesel, gas oil, waste oil, heating oil and aviation fuel. To minimise the possibility of pollution caused by spillages many tanks are bunded to 110% of their capacity. Static tanks are designed for permanent installation, either above or below ground. Transportable tanks can...
    Guidance, 10 December 2012
  • Introduction to sanitary / hygienic pumps
    Sanitary or hygienic pumps are used for handling sterile and ultrapure materials in the food processing, dairy, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, biotechnical and medical industries. Air operated double diaphragm, centrifugal, liquid ring, progressing cavity and rotary lobe pumps are all available to meet sanitary criteria. They are typically made from...
    Guidance, 10 December 2012